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Our love story Dear all at NZDating. Our story It all started with a one liner on NZDating "well Im totally interested in knowing more about you Rare earth element data Table 5 are shown in Fig. Plots of selected trace elements against silica for Oruanui mafic clasts Table 5 for representative data ; symbols as in Fig.
A notable feature of the Oruanui mafic groups is that neither has compositions that entirely match any comparably mafic suite from the TVZ Fig. The Oruanui rhyolite field is from data in Fig. Open triangles represent Oruanui mingled pumices see also Fig. The star symbol gives the inferred composition of the calc-alkaline primitive end-member Table 7 , as discussed in the text. The dash—dot tie-line connects this primitive end-member to average evolved rhyolite to show the position of the most primitive calc-alkaline mafic sample P along a proposed mixing trend see text.
Comparative fields are for TVZ basalts Gamble et al.
The major difference between the tholeiitic and calc-alkaline groups is that olivine occurs only in the latter. Ash-grade mafic fragments are dominantly angular, partly glassy vesicular shards. These shards cannot be allocated to a particular group, except where they have visible olivine present. Modal phenocryst assemblages of selected Oruanui mafic inclusions, based on counting of points. Crystals often show complex optical zoning, but this is rarely reflected in strong compositional zoning.
Apart from the fact that olivine is found only in the calc-alkaline samples, the most striking difference between the two groups lies in the anorthite contents of plagioclase see below. In the calc-alkaline clasts, plagioclase shows disequilibrium textures and evidence for two distinctive populations.
The clinopyroxene to orthopyroxene ratio generally decreases with increasing SiO 2. The largely finely crystalline groundmasses of the mafic clasts are dominated by plagioclase. Ilmenite has been identified during detailed electron microprobe work on two samples—P and P—but was not found during a similarly detailed search of the more primitive sample Pa.
Amphiboles Fig. Magnetite Fig. Ilmenite Fig. Summary of mineral compositional data for the Oruanui mafic groups; symbols as in Fig. The shaded fields are those of rhyolitic mineral compositions from Fig. In calc-alkaline clasts, plagioclase forms two separate populations Fig. Two crystals with dusty margins had clear rims that were wide enough to analyse.
These rim compositions were An 53—55 , the dusty margins produced An 45—55 and cores were An 40— Crystal zoning is generally not strong, but one crystal had a core of En 49 and a rim of En Clinopyroxene compositions Fig. Where Fe—Ti oxide geothermometry was not possible, two alternative methods two-pyroxene and hornblende—plagioclase thermometry were used in suitable samples. No significant differences are seen within or between the tholeiitic and calc-alkaline groups.
Mingled pumices are exceedingly rare in the Oruanui deposits. The mingled pumices were generated by mechanical mixing between the two end-members, and only limited hybridization has occurred. Plot of Zr versus SiO 2 for all Oruanui samples, to show the relationships between the mafic groups, mingled pumices and the normal and high-Mg rhyolites. Oruanui rhyolite compositions fall along broadly coherent trends Figs 5 and 6 , with no evidence for compositional gaps.
However, the data can be interpreted in two contrasting ways. First, the collinearity of the trends defined by the whole-rock and glass data Figs 5 and 6 suggests that the bulk compositions of many evolved rhyolites, particularly if the 18 high-Mg rhyolite samples are excluded, could have been generated by crystal fractionation from the higher-temperature less-evolved rhyolites. Note that variations in glass compositions, crystal contents and modes Tables 2 and 4 preclude an origin for the less-evolved rhyolites by simple crystal accumulation from the more-evolved rhyolites, or vice versa.
Fractional crystallization along a cotectic involving the phenocryst mineral assemblage, and dominated by plagioclase, can explain the general trends of the major and trace element data seen in Figs 5 and 6 Sutton, The change in the apparent behaviour of Y from weakly compatible to barely compatible Fig. Secondly, the following features suggest that mixing processes were important in generating the range of compositions recorded. The high-Mg rhyolites are distinctive, for example, when plotted against Zr Figs 17 and 18a and Sr; these elements are compatible in the rhyolite but incompatible or marginally compatible in the mafic magmas.
The level Zr, higher MgO and inferred lower SiO 2 contents indicate mixing of evolved rhyolite with small amounts of a mafic liquid composition that plots off the right-hand side of Fig. In contrast, the other seven high-Mg rhyolites are similar to the streaky pumices in aligning with the tholeiitic group Figs 17 and 18b. However, given that the rhyolites, tholeiitic and calc-alkaline mafic components are all compositionally variable, it is not possible to quantify the proportions of the end-members within the high-Mg group any further. Note also that eight of the 11 samples come from a single locality, which also yielded P, the least-evolved rhyolite.
Plagioclase and orthopyroxene from less-evolved normal rhyolites cannot be distinguished compositionally from those in more-evolved normal and high-Mg rhyolites, suggesting that mixing has occurred of crystal populations across the rhyolite spectrum see Liu et al. On the other hand, the least-evolved hornblendes, magnetites and ilmenites are found only in the less-evolved rhyolites. However, mixing is still required to account for the occurrence of low-Mg magnetites throughout the rhyolites.
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The older grains are interpreted to have been remobilized from largely crystallized earlier plutonic bodies. Thus, although the Oruanui rhyolites and their phenocrysts in large part represent a compositionally coherent suite of crystal-bearing liquids, plausibly related by modest fractionation from P least-evolved to P most-evolved: Table 2 , in detail, mixing processes were important. The mixing is of four main types: 1 mixing of crystals across the rhyolite spectrum see also Liu et al.
The tholeiitic clasts show coherent whole-rock and mineral compositional trends e. Figs 13 — Crustal contamination with Torlesse greywacke has been proposed as important in producing isotopic variability in TVZ basalts Gamble et al. We suggest that the Oruanui tholeiitic magma evolved during stagnation within a crustal region of rhyolite-dominated magmatism, whereas other non-tholeiitic TVZ mafic magmas have either traversed the crust rapidly, with variable degrees of assimilation monogenetic basalts: Gamble et al.
Within the calc-alkaline group, the bimodal plagioclase compositions Fig. Kakuki: Gamble et al.
The calc-alkaline primitive end-member is thus inferred to be an olivine—plagioclase basalt, which is consistent with the crystallization sequence of other primitive TVZ basalts Gamble et al. However, although mineralogical evidence indicates some role for mixing between a primitive olivine—plagioclase basalt and rhyolite, the calc-alkaline group compositions are scattered and do not plot on a binary mixing line that intercepts the bulk composition of the rhyolites Figs 15a and b , 17 and The primitive calc-alkaline end-member, when mixed with the average rhyolite, can plausibly yield the calc-alkaline sample with the highest MgO content P; Table 5 ; Fig.
The major elements are comparable to those of TVZ basalts, although there is no exact match with any published analysis. All calc-alkaline samples other than P have compositions that are on the tholeiitic side of the rhyolite—P mixing line and are therefore three-component mixtures. Calculated composition of the primitive calc-alkaline basalt end-member, based on mass balance constrained by MgO see text for discussion. Most-primitive erupted calc-alkaline composition based on MgO content Table 5.
Calculated end-member primitive calc-alkaline parental magma, using MgO values. If representative Oruanui rhyolite compositional data are plotted in order of eruption Fig. The least-evolved samples come from deposits of Phase 3 along with most of the high-Mg rhyolites and Phase 6. The most-evolved rhyolite clasts occur in deposits from phases 2, 3 and 10 Fig.
The dominant volume of magma, erupted in Phase 10, includes the most-evolved sample P but lacks the less-evolved compositions. Compositional and thermal variations through deposits erupted in phases 7—10 are negligible.
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Volatile contents in Oruanui rhyolite melt inclusions suggest that later-erupted material contains higher CO 2 and thus came from greater depth; however, there was no marked gradient in water contents Liu et al. Selected analytical data from the Oruanui rhyolites versus eruption phase i. Open circles represent single clasts; open squares represent multiple clasts filled symbols are the high-Mg rhyolite samples ; the filled triangles connected by lines represent arithmetic means of all analyses at each level. Juvenile mafic compositions do not show systematic variations with stratigraphic position either.
Mafic material is present mostly as ash to some extent throughout the eruption sequence, very sparsely in phases 1 and 2, then with three spikes in abundance in phases 3 plus 4, 7 and 9 Wilson, However, mafic clasts of a size suitable for XRF analysis have been found only in ignimbrite from phases 7 through No systematic variation is present in the ordering or abundance of tholeiitic or calc-alkaline mafic clasts in so far as 1 they are present at all of these levels, 2 both groups are present at localities where multiple hand-specimen sized clasts were found, and 3 the most- and least-evolved examples were collected from comparable stratigraphic levels in the ignimbrite.