Would visit again. Had the big breakfast and large flat white.
Coffee and breakfast were good. I can only review the home baked scone we had this morning, it was delicious. Full of dates and I would recommend. Service was good and the price was reasonable for the size. Eggs benedict and eggs royal read florentine sounds easy but wasnt quite right. Eggs and spinach warm, salmon cold and buns not toasted. Eggs benedict buns the same. It doesnt take much to toast them slightly. Especially if you're going to make them on the cheap with english muffins.
Nothing to write home about with this cafe. Service was very lukewarm too and the coffee came spilt in the saucer with no apology.
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Shame as the place looked good but just didnt deliver. You won't get a much better spot than Ohope Beach. On a nice day sit at one of the picnic table outside and soak in the sun and the view. Service was quick and efficient. With well priced basic menu items to choose from.
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Own or manage this property? Claim your listing for free to respond to reviews, update your profile and much more. Log in to get trip updates and message other travellers. During the short sequence of explosions from Raoul Island in see below , a steam and ash column rose to an altitude of about 1.
A greater volume of tephra was erupted at Raoul Island in and , when cinder cones built up in shallower water in Denham Bay: however, the hazardous area was limited to one or two kilometres from the vent. All recent eruptions on land in the Kermadecs have produced tephra. Future hazards will depend on the volume erupted and on the wind direction.
For Raoul Island, this is discussed in more detail below. The possibility of grave danger will arise if any of the Kermadec Ridge volcanoes enters into a major eruption. For most of the submarine volcanoes, this would probably require some initial activity to build the vent area up to sea level, but the summits of both Monowai and Rumble III Volcanoes are within metres of the surface at the present time.
Dangers due to tephra are much greater for large eruptions in very shallow water or on land than for those in moderately deep water. Tsunami are sea waves caused by disturbances of the ocean floor. A large displacement of water is needed to produce such a wave.
In the open ocean the height of a tsunami is generally less than one metre, with a period the time between the crest of successive waves of between five minutes and one hour. Tsunami originating at volcanoes may result from collapse of a submarine cone, from a powerful submarine explosion, or from the violent impact of pyroclastic flows or debris avalanches into water e. Such waves spread out in all directions from their source. As they approach land, the height of the waves increases rapidly. The damage caused by tsunami is due to flooding and the initial force of the wave.
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Tsunami rank highly as a cause of death and destruction in historical eruptions, and must be viewed as a serious potential threat to northern coastal areas of New Zealand in the event of a major eruption from one of the Kermadec Ridge volcanoes. A serious problem is the likely short warning time hours between initiation of a tsunami and its arrival on New Zealand coasts. Each potentially active volcano in the region is described briefly below, in order from north-east to south-west, with a summary of its history of eruptions insofar as this is know.
Figure 3. The diameter of the main area of upwelling, seen in b , is about metres see paper by F. Davey in Supplementary Reading. Also known as Orion Submarine Volcano, Monowai Submarine Volcano lies just west of the Tonga Ridge, where the ridge falls at its southern end to below metres from the surface.
The volcano is closely aligned with the Tongan volcanoes to the north, the southernmost of which are shown on Figure 1. It lies off the trend of the Kermadec volcanoes, and is structurally part of the Tonga Ridge rather than of the Kermadec Ridge. A shoal was first reported in this area in , but it was not until that it was recognised as a volcano.
On October 17 of that year the crew of an RNZAF Orion aircraft saw a discoloured patch of water some 5 km long, by to metres wide, with gas bubbles rising to the surface over an area of about metres in diameter Figure 3. Sonobuoys, dropped close to the bubbling area, picked up pulsating rumbling noises, thought to be due to the violent discharge of the gas bubbles. The volcano was found to be conical, rising from a depth of about metres to a peak of about metres below surface, at 25o At a depth of metres, the cone is about 10 km across, in a north-north-west direction through the summit, by about 7 km at right angles to this direction.
No dredge samples have yet been recovered from the cone, and it is therefore not known what types of volcanic rock are erupted at Monowai Volcano. Minor eruptions at Monowai Volcano probably take the form of quiet outflowing of lava on the sea floor, and some turbulent gas release at the surface, and are of no risk to anyone.
In the case of a sudden large eruption, however, explosions could endanger aircraft or ships close to the vent. A more widespread hazard would result from the collapse of a large part of the underwater cone. This would probably give rise to moderately large tsunami, which could affect many parts of the south-west Pacific. Collapse of this kind could readily take place due to overloading of the cone by lava eruptions at the summit or high on the flanks, which might cause the steeper parts of the structure to give way. If the report of a shoal was correct, collapse of the summit must indeed have taken place since the peak is now about metres below surface.
However, from the shape of the cone in Figure 4, it does not look as if a large collapse has occurred recently. Hence it is likely that the shoal reported in was, in fact, either a pumice raft, or a disturbance of the water due to gas discharge. Figure 4. Monowai Volcano: bathymetry and bathymetric profile from paper by F. Davey given in Supplementary Reading. The Kermadec Islands are the summits of large volcanoes that have been built up on the crest of the Kermadec Ridge, and have emerged above sea level.
The northernmost known volcanic centre in the Kermadecs is Raoul Island, which is the summit of a large submerged massif about 35 km by 20 km, with its long axis aligned north-east, slightly inclined to the overall trend of the Kermadec Ridge. It is possible, however, and indeed likely, that there are submarine volcanoes, as yet undiscovered, further north along the ridge, which rises in several places to within metres of the surface.
Raoul Island itself, the largest of the Kermadec Islands, is an anvil-shaped island, about 30 km2 in area, with a maximum length of about 10 km in an east-west direction along the north coast, and about 6 km from north to south Figure 5. The island has undergone many changes as a result of eruptions during the past few thousand years, and as a result of earlier eruptions. It now contains a large central depression, a little over 3 km east-west by about 2 km north-south, formed largely by subsidence immediately after large eruptions.
This type of structure, resembling a very large volcanic crater, is known as a caldera. Just west of Raoul Caldera, and almost touching it at one point, is Denham Bay, a second caldera also a little over 3 km long, but in a north-south direction, by rather less than 3 km wide , which has been flooded by the sea. The geology of Raoul Island has been well studied, especially over the northern half of the island, which was mapped in detail by two of the present authors E.
In the southern part, access is difficult and more work needs to be done, especially on the distribution of rocks erupted during the last few thousand years, before the detailed history of eruptions at Raoul can be fully understood. The earliest rocks exposed on Raoul Island, and on some of the small Herald Islands to the north-east, were formed as a result of submarine eruptions. They have been roughly dated at between half a million and about one and a half million years old.
The rocks are basaltic andesites, a type common in island arc situations worldwide. Eruptions of basaltic andesite are generally not violently explosive; lava flows are often produced, together with rhythmic ejections of hot lava fragments and "spatter", in a style of eruption known as Strombolian, after the Italian island of Stromboli. At some stage during the last half million years, the volcano emerged above sea level and a large stratovolcano a composite cone, made of alternating lava flows, and tephra beds was built up.
A very powerful eruption led to the collapse of this structure, and a single large caldera formed, which probably included the sites of the present Raoul and Denham Bay Calderas. Between and 10, years ago, activity in the eastern part of this caldera built up a large cone of basalt and basaltic andesite in a series of Strombolian eruptions. This filled and extended beyond the area now occupied by Raoul Caldera: it has been named Moumoukai Volcano.
About B. Previously most of the material erupted was basalt and basaltic andesite. From this time onwards, however, almost all the magma erupted was dacite, which is a more viscous rock than andesite that is to say, it flows less easily. Consequently gas, which is the driving force of all eruptions, is much less able to escape from dacite magma than from andesite, and as a result high gas pressures build up within the magma, which are released in very powerful explosions. Hence dacite is usually erupted as pumice, which is rock from which the trapped gases have escaped violently through the myriad small holes with which the rock is perforated.
Fortunately rhyolite, which is still more viscous than dacite and hence gives rise to eruptions, such as those of Taupo in New Zealand, which are even more explosive an dangerous than dacite eruptions , is not found, except in small quantity, in the Kermadec Islands. Although dacite pumice has been the normal product of magmatic eruptions at Raoul Island since about B.
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Many eruptions have also occurred which have not ejected any fresh magma. These so-called phreatic or water-driven explosions throw out only old previously-cooled rock, as a result of sudden violent interaction between hot rock or gas and groundwater. The volcanic history of Raoul during the last years has been extensively studied. In addition to three historical eruptions, which were seen taking place in , and , geological studies have established the approximate dates, volumes and vent areas for a further 12 eruptions, as listed in Table 1.
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These vent areas are also marked on Figure 5. Approximate sizes volumes are given for the eruptions. These "erupted volume magnitudes" EVM form a logarithmic scale, like Richter earthquake magnitudes. Each successive number on the scale represents ten times the volume of the previous number, and each number is the most significant first digit of the logarithm of the erupted volume in cubic metres.
Thus magnitude 6 represents 1 followed by six zeroes, or 1,, cubic metres m3 , and is ten times the volume of magnitude 5, which represents , cubic metres m3. Table 1.
Volcanic eruptions at Raoul Island during the last years in order from youngest to oldest.