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The secluded property overlooks an estuary and farmland. It provides free private parking. The environment was out if this world! Being completely alone immersed in nature. The cabin was very cosy and felt homely. Love the fact that they were also environmentally conscious. They left hand written notes everywhere to help us with conserving water.

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Featuring a garden, Owaka Lodge Motel is located in Owaka. This property has both free WiFi and private parking free of charge. At the motel, rooms contain a desk and a flat-screen TV. Free private parking is available on site. The unit includes a kitchen with an oven and microwave. The queen sized bed had bed warmers and there was a file with information on places to visit nearby.

The unit equipped with a kitchen with an oven and microwave. Large, cosy apartment, good amenities, comfy beds, nice location. Maryna was an awesome, very knowledgeable, welcoming host and was always of help when needed. Great value for money. Thanks for having us! There's a restaurant serving Local cuisine, and free private parking is available. Lovely view from the living area. Loved watching the horses. Located in Owaka, Catlins Area Motel offers a garden. There's a terrace and guests can use free WiFi and free private parking.

Everything we needed for a comfortable stay. Error: Please enter a valid email address.

Papatowai, New Zealand | Clutha Development

Error: Oops! An error has occurred. The basis of the model was a uniform sequence of stratigraphy which was regarded as the result of lengthy occupation. That argument was supported by evidence of changes in fauna and material culture, and by a series of radiocarbon dates. We have argued that the stratigraphic model is not actually supported by evidence derived from earlier excavations. The pattern of change in frequency of faunal remains with stratigraphy was observed as a decline in big game and a rise in fish, shellfish and small birds, but, even in the relatively restricted part of the site where this was evident, it does not follow that the explanation requires an extended passage of time.

The argument that there were significant changes in material culture assemblages correlated with stratigraphy cannot be substantiated by the data, and the radiocarbon dates which supported this general model do not withstand modern scrutiny. Our excavations disclosed only two cultural layers. There were variations in contents within each layer and between the excavation areas. It is possible that this stratigraphy reflects two phases of occupation, but, since the lower layer clearly results from cooking activities without much dumping and the upper from dumping of food and other refuse without much cooking, or at least construction of large umu , it is more likely that they represent simply two activities of a single occupation.

Nor would this interpretation be inconsistent with the radiocarbon dates from our excavations, which showed that the two layers were almost identical in age. Even if a two-phase interpretation were preferred, our data indicate that little time could have separated the occupations.

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Importantly, it is apparent that big game are highly predominant in the estimated meat weight from the upper layer, and might be even more so if the moa bone was not so fragmented. Our interpretation of Papatowai, therefore, is that it was a large camp, - rather than a village, that was occupied over a few years, perhaps a generation, and probably discontinuosly, at which butchery and consumption of moas and seals was the main subsistence activity throughout.

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These revisions clearly impact on thinking about the course and causes of economic change in southern New Zealand, including the extinction of moas Lockerbie ; Anderson , and, therefore, on Maori palaeoeconomics as a whole, but those are issues beyond the scope of this paper. It is sufficient to note here that the basic trend, from a relatively greater emphasis on big game to greater reliance on small game including fish and shellfish, must still exist in southern prehistory.

What should change, we argue, is the belief that this process took place over an extended period of time at sites such as Papatowai. The excavation and analysis were funded by the University of Otago, to which we are grateful. Calibration of charcoal dates after Stuiver and Reimer with offset of 30 radiocarbon years Stuiver and Pearson , and of shell dates according to Stuiver, Pearson and Braziunas with geographic offset Delta-R set at 0 radiocarbon years and conventional ages shifted by radiocarbon years McFadgen and Manning Previous Next.

Figure 1. It incorporated a black layer representing moa hunting with [sic] a varied kit of adzes, many of them massive and skilfully flaked, unbarbed fish hooks, large silcrete blades and ulu-type knives … an intermediate layer with an ashy matrix showing a decline in moa hunting and changes in the proportions of artefact types; and a top.

Figure 2. Previous investigations at Papatowai after Hamel Fig. If most artifacts were deposited during the period of the Working Floor component, they could have been trampled into the upper parts of the black layer, and in other areas scuffed up into the base of the single ashy-shelly layer which Teviotdale recognized above the black layer.

Figure 3. Location of the excavations. Figure 4. Figure 5. PPT - stratigraphic profiles. Location of sections shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. PPT - plan of cultural deposits. Figure 7. Proportional representation of Fiordland crested penguin body parts in PPT layer 3. Figure 8. Proportional representation of dog left and fur seal right body parts in PPT layer 3. Figure 9. Artefacts from the excavations, a. Short Link. Earlier Stratigraphical Observations The stratigraphy of previous excavations has been discussed in detail by Hamel Lockerbie reached a similar conclusion in his synthesis of Catlins prehistory Lockerbie , as Hamel explains: It incorporated a black layer representing moa hunting with [sic] a varied kit of adzes, many of them massive and skilfully flaked, unbarbed fish hooks, large silcrete blades and ulu-type knives … an intermediate layer with an ashy matrix showing a decline in moa hunting and changes in the proportions of artefact types; and a top - Figure 2.

Artefacts If this analysis of the stratigraphy does not suggest as lengthy an occupation as that implied by the more complex general sequence, then the same conclusion emerges from analysis of the distribution of artefact types in the site. Faunal Remains This leaves only the question of whether differences in the relative - quantities or types of animal remains might support a hypothesis of long occupation, as has often been concluded on the basis of the earlier evidence e.

Radiocarbon Dates Until , there had been 15 radiocarbon dates on samples obtained from Papatowai Hamel Table Excavation PPT Hamel's TT1 excavation had taken place on the flat ground east of the coach road just below the foot of the high dunes. Both showed a brown sand and humus cm overlying sterile yellow - Figure 5. Faunal Remains Faunal remains were identified using comparative material in the Anthro- - pology Department, University of Otago and, in the case of moa bones, with the assistance of Trevor Worthy personal communication.

Crania occurred more frequently Figure 7. Moa remains were seven times more common in PPT 8. Artefacts Only 69 artefacts were found. Area THK yielded a fishhook tab-core Fig. Radiocarbon Dates Three charcoal samples were submitted for radiocarbon dating. Faunal depletion and subsistence change in the early prehistory of southern New Zealand. Archaeology in Oceania , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The prehistoric chronology of New Zealand. Antiquity , The pattern of prehistoric colonisation in New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand , Lindsay, Moahunters of New Zealand.

New Plymouth: Avery. Davidson, Janet, The Prehistory of New Zealand. Auckland: Longman Paul. Duff, Roger, The Moa-hunter Period of Maori Culture.

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Wellington: Government Printer. Minimum numbers and sample size in vertebrate faunal analysis. American Antiquity, Gumbley, Warren, A comparative study of the material culture of Murihiku.

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Unpublished M. Hamel, G. Prehistoric man and his environment in the Catlins, New Zealand. Unpublished Ph. Radiocarbon dates from the moa-hunter site of Papatowai, Otago, New Zealand.